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The effect of interbedding on shale reservoir properties Kimmeridge Clay Formation

Figure 1. Structural elements of the North Sea showing the framework of the Viking Graben (modified from Dominguez, 2007) with inset of UK Quadrant 16 showing the location of wells studied (modified from DECC, 2013).

Abstract North Sea oil is overwhelmingly generated in shales of the Upper Jurassic – basal Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Once generated, the oil is expelled and ultimately migrates to accumulate in sandstone or carbonate reservoirs. The source rock shales, however, still contain the portion of the oil that was not expelled.

Sustainability of UK shale gas in comparison with other electricity options: Current situation and future scenarios

this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and social aspects of shale gas to evaluate its overall sustainability

Abstract Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and

Potential impacts of emissions associated with unconventional hydrocarbon extraction on UK air quality and human health

Fig. 4 Monthly mean of the daily 1-h maximum surface NO2 in the control simulation (a) and simulated differences for the inclusion of fracking-related activity emissions in scenarios 1–4 (b–d) for June 2013.

Broadly speaking, our simulations indicate increases in both of these compounds across the UK air shed throughout the year. Changes in the 1-h maximum of NO2 and 8-h mean of O3 are particularly important for their human health impacts. These respective changes in NO2 and O3 would contribute to approximately

Characterising the vertical separation of shale-gas source rocks and aquifers across England and Wales (UK)

Fig. 1a Schematic diagram showing potential source-pathway-receptors resulting from shale gas exploration and production (after Vengosh et al. 2014). Numbers correspond to pathways described in the text. Diagram not to scale. b Schematic diagram illustrating the effect of aquifer–shale separation distances and potential direct pathways through the intervening interval, including migration through the intervening rock mass, and aquifer and hydraulic fractures linking with a permeable fault zone. Green dotted lines illustrate 100 and 600-m hydraulic fracture heights

The application of the method is then demonstrated for two of these pairs—the Cretaceous Chalk Group aquifer and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, and the Triassic sandstone aquifer and the Carboniferous Bowland Shale Formation. Challenges in defining what might be considered criteria for ‘safe separation’ between a shale gas

Fracking: How far from faults?

Fig. 4 Map showing the epicentre of the fracking-induced earthquake of 2nd August 2011 (PH Event) in relation to the hypothesised fault which slipped and the orientations of the maximum (SHmax) and minimum (SHmin) horizontal stress directions. Adapted from Clarke et al. (2014).

An alternative approach is to use microseismic data to infer the extent of fracture propagation and stress changes. Using published microseismic data from 109 fracking operations and analysis of variance, we find that the empirical risk of detecting microseismicity in shale beyond a horizontal distance of 433 m is 32%