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Pore Structure Characterization and the Controlling Factors of the Bakken Formation

Figure 1. Location of the Williston Basin and study area.

The Bakken Formation develops micropores, mesopores, and macropores. However, the Upper and Lower Bakken shale are dominated by micropores, while the Middle Bakken tight reservoir is dominated by mesopores. The total pore volume and specific surface area of the Middle Bakken are significantly higher than those of the Upper and

Groundwater baseline water quality in a shale gas exploration site and fracturing fluid-shale rock interaction

Fig. 2 The shallow groundwater chemical composition

At present, the baseline water quality must be firstly obtained to identify potential pollution of the activity and monitoring indicators should be studied for better environmental monitoring. We sampled shallow groundwater, produced waters, shale rock and soil in the Jiaoshiba shale-gas region, SW China and measurements have included water chemistry

Pore evolution in hydrocarbon-generation simulation of organic matter-rich muddy shale

Fig. 4. FESEM images of carbonaceous mudstone and the simulated samples at different temperatures.

However, in the high mature-overmature stage, shale porosity decreased with further increase of temperature and pressure. In contrast to micropores, micro-scale capillary pores and megapores in shale constantly decreased as rise of simulation temperature or pressure, indicating that deep-burial reservoirs was not favorable for free-gas storage; but significant increase of

Mechanism of multi-stage sand filling stimulation in horizontal shale gas well development

Fig. 1. Body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic models of equant spheres.

With consideration to the limitations in the implementation of the mechanical staging technique with bridge plug for shale gas development in the Sichuan–Chongqing area, the technique of multi-stage sand filling stimulation in horizontal wells was proposed to solve the above-mentioned problems. By filling sands in fractures, it is possible to

Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

Fig. 1. Comparison between screw perforation and planar perforation.

In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel) and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques

The shale gas revolution: Barriers, sustainability, and emerging opportunities

Fig. 1. Map of the Barnett Shale formation and production. The map illustrates the county-level spatial distribution of shale gas production (main map) and average per-well production rate (inset).

Abstract Shale gas and hydraulic refracturing has revolutionized the US energy sector in terms of prices, consumption, and CO2 emissions. However, key questions remain including environmental concerns and extraction efficiencies that are leveling off. For the first time, we identify key discoveries, lessons learned, and recommendations from this shale gas revolution

Estimation of fracture aperture from petrophysical logs using teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm into a fuzzy inference system

Fig. 10 Processed image logs, conventional well logs, and estimated hydraulic aperture for each fracture plane. The last column shows the comparison between core permeability and derived values

Recently, some artificial intelligence techniques facilitated reliable estimations of reservoir parameters. In this paper, a teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm (TLBO) trained an initial fuzzy inference system to estimate hydraulic aperture of detected fractures using well logs responses. Comparing the results with real measurements revealed that the model can provide reliable estimations

Numerical Simulation of Fracking in Shale Rocks: Current State and Future Approaches

Fig. 1 Fracking example

The anisotropy of shale depends significantly on the scale at which the problem is tackled (nano, micro or macroscale), suggesting that a multiscale model would be appropriate. Moreover, propagation of hydraulic fractures in such a complex medium can be difficult to model with current numerical discretisation methods. The crack propagation

A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

Figure 5: Description of the main phenomena occurring during the propagation of the self-pyrolysis front.

The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a

Superhydrophilic Functionalization of Microfiltration Ceramic Membranes Enables Separation of Hydrocarbons from Frac and Produced Water

Superhydrophilic Functionalization of Microfiltration Ceramic Membranes Enables Separation of Hydrocarbons from Frac and Produced Water

Membrane fouling is essentially eliminated, while a specific flux is obtained at a lower pressure (<2 bar) than that required achieving the same flux for the untreated membrane (4–8 bar). Introduction Although the long-term solution to global energy needs must be based on renewable sources, the present demand for oil and gas shows no