Abstract When comparing oil and gas projects - their relative attractiveness, robustness, and contribution to markets - various dollar per barrel benchmarks are quoted in the literature and in public debates. Among these benchmarks are a variety of breakeven points (also called breakeven costs or breakeven prices), widely used to predict
At present, the baseline water quality must be firstly obtained to identify potential pollution of the activity and monitoring indicators should be studied for better environmental monitoring. We sampled shallow groundwater, produced waters, shale rock and soil in the Jiaoshiba shale-gas region, SW China and measurements have included water chemistry
However, in the high mature-overmature stage, shale porosity decreased with further increase of temperature and pressure. In contrast to micropores, micro-scale capillary pores and megapores in shale constantly decreased as rise of simulation temperature or pressure, indicating that deep-burial reservoirs was not favorable for free-gas storage; but significant increase of
Higher concentration of nanoparticles can induce better plugging effect. However, for the OBDFs, nanoparticles did not show these positive effects like the nano WBDFs, even leaded to some negative effects such as higher filtration and larger Young's-modulus reduction. The main reasons are that the silica nanoparticles can easily disperse in
It is shown that severe casing deformation tends to occur where structural fractures are developed. Besides, casing deformation is mainly in the form of “S”-shape bending vertically. The severely deformed casing is also characterized by obviously transverse shear deformation caused by the high-angle sliding compression of rocks. Therefore, some suggestions
The research findings indicate that ScCO2 fluid replacement can be used to increase gas production and seal up greenhouse gases as an effective, clean and safe method of shale gas exploitation. It is particularly effective for promoting the desorption of CH4 in shale reservoirs that have developed fine neck-wide body
Abstract Public and stakeholder engagement with shale development is difficult, but essential. We review 26 engagement processes carried out by US and Canadian companies, alliances, government agencies, academics and activists; systematically exploring who participates, the stage at which engagements take place, aims and methods, provision for multiway engagement, and issues of
The dispersion test was conducted, and it involves exposing a weighted quantity of sized shale to the formulated mud in roller-oven. This test is used to design fluids and screen the effectiveness of inhibitor additives to maintain the integrity of the cuttings and minimize the interaction of fluids with the
It includes non-marine shale gas potential, core technology and equipment for resource deep than 3500 m, complex surface “factory mode” production, human geography and other non-technical factors. (4) Process economic evaluation under the conditions of government financial subsidies. China's shale gas project FIRR is about 8.0%–9.0%. Considering the global shale
Therefore, the independently-developed CTSTA program is adopted to quantitatively describe the micro-fractures inside rock core, including fracture dimension, extension direction and extension scale. Meanwhile, this study summarizes the classification characteristics of fractures and their anisotropy. On this basis, the fractal dimensions of fractures can also be extracted. Previous studies show that
In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel) and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques
Abstract Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback water was characterised by high chemical oxygen demand and DOC.
The datasets vary considerably in terms of the number of wells examined, their age and their designs. Therefore the percentage of wells that have had some form of well barrier or integrity failure is highly variable (1.9%–75%). Of the 8030 wells targeting the Marcellus shale inspected in Pennsylvania between 2005
Abstract Shale gas and hydraulic refracturing has revolutionized the US energy sector in terms of prices, consumption, and CO2 emissions. However, key questions remain including environmental concerns and extraction efficiencies that are leveling off. For the first time, we identify key discoveries, lessons learned, and recommendations from this shale gas revolution
With the increase of pH value, the adsorption capacity decreased gradually, the adsorption capacity increased first and then decreased with the increase of temperature, and the adsorption capacity was the largest at 45°C. The adsorption patterns of polymers on shale were described by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.