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Molecular simulation of shale gas adsorption in organic-matter nanopore

Fig. 2. Configuration of CH4 and CO2 adsorbed by organic pore (burial depth 4 km). (a) Initial configuration of CH4 adsorbed (b) Initial configuration of CO2 adsorbed; (c) Initial configuration of CH4/CO2 adsorbed;

The results indicated that the adsorptions of CH4 and CO2 were physical and the optimal storage depth was 2 km; The mixed adsorption data showed the rationality of exploit shale gas by injecting CO2 to exchange CH4, and the optimal burial depth was 4 km; The relative density of CH4

Enhancing the rheological properties and shale inhibition behavior of water-based mud using nanosilica, multi-walled carbon nanotube, and graphene nanoplatelet

Figure 2. (a) API filtrate volume tester, and (b) HPHT filtrate volume tester.

Abstract Five different drilling mud systems namely potassium chloride (KCl) as a basic mud, KCl/partial hydrolytic polyacrylamide (PHPA), KCl/graphene nanoplatelet (GNP), KCl/nanosilica and KCl/multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) were prepared and investigated for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. Nanoparticles were characterized in drilling mud using transmission electron microscope (TEM)

Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Fractures are crucial for unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation, but it is difficult to accurately observe the 3D spatial distribution characteristics of fractures. Microtomography (micro-CT) technology makes it possible to observe the 3D structures of fractures at micro-scale.

Therefore, the independently-developed CTSTA program is adopted to quantitatively describe the micro-fractures inside rock core, including fracture dimension, extension direction and extension scale. Meanwhile, this study summarizes the classification characteristics of fractures and their anisotropy. On this basis, the fractal dimensions of fractures can also be extracted. Previous studies show that

Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

Fig. 1. Comparison between screw perforation and planar perforation.

In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel) and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques

Sustainability of UK shale gas in comparison with other electricity options: Current situation and future scenarios

this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and social aspects of shale gas to evaluate its overall sustainability

Abstract Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and

Anti-channeling cementing technology for long horizontal sections of shale gas wells

Fig. 1. Diagram of designed and actual well trajectories of Well W204H4-6.

It is indicated that the near-bit three-centralizer drifting BHA used for casing stiffness simulation can decrease the casing running difficulty in the long horizontal section of a shale gas well and increase the time efficiency and safety of casing running; that the flushing efficiency of high-efficiency oil flushing spacer fluid

Removal of organic compounds from shale gas flowback water

Fig. 1. Fractions of TOC (A) and molecular composition of LMW acid (B) and LMW neutral (C) fractions of the shale gas flowback water.

Abstract Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback water was characterised by high chemical oxygen demand and DOC.

Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of typical well design, showing (A): structure of an exploration well; and (B): a production well. Depths to which different casings are used vary according to geology and pressure regime of drill site. Well diameter exaggerated to show sections more clearly.

The datasets vary considerably in terms of the number of wells examined, their age and their designs. Therefore the percentage of wells that have had some form of well barrier or integrity failure is highly variable (1.9%–75%). Of the 8030 wells targeting the Marcellus shale inspected in Pennsylvania between 2005

The shale gas revolution: Barriers, sustainability, and emerging opportunities

Fig. 1. Map of the Barnett Shale formation and production. The map illustrates the county-level spatial distribution of shale gas production (main map) and average per-well production rate (inset).

Abstract Shale gas and hydraulic refracturing has revolutionized the US energy sector in terms of prices, consumption, and CO2 emissions. However, key questions remain including environmental concerns and extraction efficiencies that are leveling off. For the first time, we identify key discoveries, lessons learned, and recommendations from this shale gas revolution

Adsorption damage and control measures of slick-water fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs

Fig. 1 Experimental integrating shale displacement unit and ultraviolet spectrophotometer.

With the increase of pH value, the adsorption capacity decreased gradually, the adsorption capacity increased first and then decreased with the increase of temperature, and the adsorption capacity was the largest at 45°C. The adsorption patterns of polymers on shale were described by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.

Pore evolution characteristic of shale in the Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

Fig. 1. Structural characteristics of Sichuan Basin and sampling locations (modified from Liu et al. (2016)).

Through study on effect of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter maturity (Ro), diagenesis and tectonism on shale porosity, influence of TOC on porosity could be divided into four stages: the rapid increasing stage (TOC from 0 to 2%), the slow decreasing stage (TOC from 2 to 3%), the rapid

Micron-to nano-pore characteristics in the shale of Longmaxi Formation, southeast Sichuan Basin

Fig. 2. Distribution and morphological characteristics of organic pores. (a) Abundant organic pores occurred in the band shape and were developed in irregular organic matter which was filled among mineral particles, the sample was from Well YC4 at the depth of 749.2 m;

BET specific surface area of the shale in Longmaxi Formation ranged from 3.5 to 18.1 m2/g, BJH total pore volume was from 0.00234 to 0.01338 cm3/g, DA specific surface area of micropores vaired from 1.3 to 7.3 m2/g, and DA pore volume ranged from 0.00052 to 0.00273 cm3/g. The specific

Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations

Fig. 1. Physical and spatial concepts in the TIM.

Abstract Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to

The potential for spills and leaks of contaminated liquids from shale gas developments

Fig. 3. The number of sites that need to be developed before an incident or spill is likely to occur based on the petrol tankers data and minimum and maximum tanker numbers from the IoD report. Scenario 1: Single-well pad with 10 wells with 10 laterals developed over two years

Abstract Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission

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