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Pore evolution characteristic of shale in the Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

Fig. 1. Structural characteristics of Sichuan Basin and sampling locations (modified from Liu et al. (2016)).

Through study on effect of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter maturity (Ro), diagenesis and tectonism on shale porosity, influence of TOC on porosity could be divided into four stages: the rapid increasing stage (TOC from 0 to 2%), the slow decreasing stage (TOC from 2 to 3%), the rapid

Micron-to nano-pore characteristics in the shale of Longmaxi Formation, southeast Sichuan Basin

Fig. 2. Distribution and morphological characteristics of organic pores. (a) Abundant organic pores occurred in the band shape and were developed in irregular organic matter which was filled among mineral particles, the sample was from Well YC4 at the depth of 749.2 m;

BET specific surface area of the shale in Longmaxi Formation ranged from 3.5 to 18.1 m2/g, BJH total pore volume was from 0.00234 to 0.01338 cm3/g, DA specific surface area of micropores vaired from 1.3 to 7.3 m2/g, and DA pore volume ranged from 0.00052 to 0.00273 cm3/g. The specific

Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations

Fig. 1. Physical and spatial concepts in the TIM.

Abstract Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to

Effects of rock pore sizes on the PVT properties of oil and gas-condensates in shale and tight reservoirs

Fig. 1. Lateral extent of Eagle Ford shale reservoir [18].

Abstract Shales make up a large proportion of the rocks with extremely low permeability representing many challenges which can be complex in many cases. A careful study of rock and fluid properties (i.e. PVT of shales) of such resources is needed for long-term success, determining reservoirs quality, and increased recovery factor

The potential for spills and leaks of contaminated liquids from shale gas developments

Fig. 3. The number of sites that need to be developed before an incident or spill is likely to occur based on the petrol tankers data and minimum and maximum tanker numbers from the IoD report. Scenario 1: Single-well pad with 10 wells with 10 laterals developed over two years

Abstract Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission

Shale gas exploitation: Status, problems and prospect

Fig. 2. Annual production of major shale gas plays in the world. Note: The data abroad are sourced from Refs. [14], [15], and the domestic data from Ref. [1]. Except for the Monteney and Muskwa shale gas plays in Canada of which the production data are shale gas production from 2011 to 2012, those of other plays are the data in 2015.

Shale gas reserves and production have been in a rapid growth in China owing to the Lower Paleozoic Wufeng and Longmaxi shale gas exploitation in the Sichuan Basin, which has become an important sector for the future increment of gas reserves and output in China. However, substantial progress has been

Shale hydration inhibition characteristics and mechanism of a new amine-based additive in water-based drilling fluids

In this work, shale hydration Inhibition performance of tallow amine ethoxylate as a shale stabilizer in water based drilling fluid, was investigated through these tests: bentonite hydration inhibition test, bentonite sedimentation test, drill cutting recovery test, dynamic linear swelling test, wettability test, isothermal water adsorption test, and zeta potential test.

Some amine functional groups exist in tallow amine ethoxylate structure which are capable of forming hydrogen bonding with surfaces of bentonite particles. This phenomenon decreased the water adsorption on bentonite particles' surfaces which results in reduction of swelling. Tallow amine ethoxylate is also compatible with other common drilling fluid additives. Introduction A

Optimization of huff-n-puff gas injection in shale oil reservoirs

Fig. 4. Well bottom-hole pressure (dot points are actual data, and line is simulated data).

The numerical simulation results and discussions show that the optimum huff time is so long that the pressure near the wellbore reaches the set maximum injection pressure during the huff period; and the optimum puff time is the time required for the pressure near the wellbore to reach the set

Unconventional resource’s production under desorption-induced effects

Fig. 1. Desorption isotherms for four U.S. shale formations.

Hence, it is essential to investigate the effects of induced permeability, porosity, and stress by desorption on ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. We have developed a numerical model to study the effect of changes in porosity, permeability and compaction on four major U.S. shale formations considering their Langmuir isotherm desorption behavior. These resources

Elastic–Brittle–Plastic Behaviour of Shale Reservoirs and Its Implications on Fracture Permeability Variation: An Analytical Approach

Fig. 1 a Fractures in shale core samples (Gale et al. 2014), b a subvertical calcite-cemented fracture (Soeder 1988), c simplified dual porosity concept for shale

Desorption of gas during production can cause shrinkage of the organic content of the rock. This becomes more important when considering the use of shales for CO2 sequestration purposes, where CO2 adsorption-induced swelling can play an important role. These phenomena lead to changes in the stress state within the rock

Potential impacts of emissions associated with unconventional hydrocarbon extraction on UK air quality and human health

Fig. 4 Monthly mean of the daily 1-h maximum surface NO2 in the control simulation (a) and simulated differences for the inclusion of fracking-related activity emissions in scenarios 1–4 (b–d) for June 2013.

Broadly speaking, our simulations indicate increases in both of these compounds across the UK air shed throughout the year. Changes in the 1-h maximum of NO2 and 8-h mean of O3 are particularly important for their human health impacts. These respective changes in NO2 and O3 would contribute to approximately

Production performance analysis of fractured horizontal well in tight oil reservoir

Fig. 8 Log q/(Pi−Pwf) versus log time plot of simulated case 1

There main focuses of this study are in two aspects: (1) find out effective methods to estimate OOIPSRV for an individual MFHW in tight oil reservoir when there is only production data available and (2) study the relationship between productivity and fracturing network parameters (ω and λ) so as to

Exploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction

Fig. 1 Number of UOG air sampling studies by geologic formation. Air sampling has been performed in various UOG sites in the US. The most commonly sampled site in studies identified by our search was the Barnett Shale located in TX.

In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. Compounds associated with UOG activity have been linked to adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes in humans and laboratory animal models, which is possibly

Development of a new correlation to determine the static Young’s modulus

Fig. 13 Estimated Young’s modulus value from dynamic one using different correlation, case #2 limestone formation. E new is the static Young’s modulus estimated by the developed correlation, and it gives the best match with the core measured data and the lowest root-mean-square error. a Prediction of static Young’s modulus. b Root-mean-square error

The laboratory values are then used to correlate the dynamic values derived from the logs. Several correlations were introduced in the literature, but those correlations were very specific and when applied to different cases they gave very high errors and were limited to relating the dynamic Young’ modulus with the

Analytical model for pressure and rate analysis of multi-fractured horizontal wells in tight gas reservoirs

Fig. 5 Transient pressure type curves of MFHW in tight gas reservoir

Fractal porosity and permeability were employed to describe the heterogeneous distribution of the complex fracture network. The stress sensitivity of fractures was also considered in the model. Pedrosa substitution and perturbation method were applied to eliminate the nonlinearity of the model. Analytical solutions in the Laplace domain were obtained using

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