The results indicated that the adsorptions of CH4 and CO2 were physical and the optimal storage depth was 2 km; The mixed adsorption data showed the rationality of exploit shale gas by injecting CO2 to exchange CH4, and the optimal burial depth was 4 km; The relative density of CH4
Abstract Five different drilling mud systems namely potassium chloride (KCl) as a basic mud, KCl/partial hydrolytic polyacrylamide (PHPA), KCl/graphene nanoplatelet (GNP), KCl/nanosilica and KCl/multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) were prepared and investigated for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. Nanoparticles were characterized in drilling mud using transmission electron microscope (TEM)
Therefore, the independently-developed CTSTA program is adopted to quantitatively describe the micro-fractures inside rock core, including fracture dimension, extension direction and extension scale. Meanwhile, this study summarizes the classification characteristics of fractures and their anisotropy. On this basis, the fractal dimensions of fractures can also be extracted. Previous studies show that
In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel) and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques
Abstract Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and
It is indicated that the near-bit three-centralizer drifting BHA used for casing stiffness simulation can decrease the casing running difficulty in the long horizontal section of a shale gas well and increase the time efficiency and safety of casing running; that the flushing efficiency of high-efficiency oil flushing spacer fluid
Abstract Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback water was characterised by high chemical oxygen demand and DOC.
The datasets vary considerably in terms of the number of wells examined, their age and their designs. Therefore the percentage of wells that have had some form of well barrier or integrity failure is highly variable (1.9%–75%). Of the 8030 wells targeting the Marcellus shale inspected in Pennsylvania between 2005
Abstract Shale gas and hydraulic refracturing has revolutionized the US energy sector in terms of prices, consumption, and CO2 emissions. However, key questions remain including environmental concerns and extraction efficiencies that are leveling off. For the first time, we identify key discoveries, lessons learned, and recommendations from this shale gas revolution
With the increase of pH value, the adsorption capacity decreased gradually, the adsorption capacity increased first and then decreased with the increase of temperature, and the adsorption capacity was the largest at 45°C. The adsorption patterns of polymers on shale were described by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.
Abstract Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to
Abstract Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission