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A Fully Three Dimensional Semianalytical Model for Shale Gas Reservoirs with Hydraulic Fractures

Figure 2. Illustrations of dimensionless pressure distributions for various shapes of fractures.

A Fully Three Dimensional Semianalytical Model for Shale Gas Reservoirs with Hydraulic Fractures   The shale gas diffusion equations considers complex transport mechanism such as gas slippage and gas diffusion. This semianalytical model is verified with a commercial software and an analytical method for single fully penetrated rectangle fracture, and the production

Hydraulic Fracture Design with a Proxy Model for Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoir with Considering Feasibility Study

Figure 6. Natural fracture generation and upscaling in 3D grid systems—(a) natural fracture generation, (b) fracture porosity, (c) sigma factor, (d) fracture permeability, x, (e) fracture permeability, y, and (f) facture permeability, z.

Hydraulic Fracture Design with a Proxy Model for Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoir with Considering Feasibility Study The proxy model uses a robust regression scheme and can replace a commercial reservoir simulator. The proxy model proposed can determine the influence of impact factors on the production at each production time. The calculation

An Analytical Flow Model for Heterogeneous Multi-Fractured Systems in Shale Gas Reservoirs

Figure 1. Schematic of physical models for hydraulically fractured horizontal wells. (a) The typical five-region flow model proposed by Stalgorova and Mattar [10]. (b) The improved five-region flow model (new model). Fracture half-length: xf; width of the hydraulic fracture: wD; distance from the hydraulic fracture to stimulated reservoir volume (SRV): y1; no flow bound: x2,y2.

An Analytical Flow Model for Heterogeneous Multi-Fractured Systems in Shale Gas Reservoirs Tang et al. [4] established a three-dimensional numerical model based on the construction of spatial discretization by the finite volume method. Wang [5] proposed a unified model for shale gas reservoirs based on discrete fracture networks to investigate shale

An Analytical Model for Capturing the Decline of Fracture Conductivity in the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale Trend from Production Data

Figure 1. Schematic chart between two fractures. (a) Virtual boundary between two fractures. (b) Schematic chart of pressure distribution.

An Analytical Model for Capturing the Decline of Fracture Conductivity in the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale Trend from Production Data Production data analyses with the model revealed that the pressure-dependent fracture conductivity in the TMS in the Mississippi section declines following a logarithmic mode, with dimensionless coefficient χ varying between 0.116 and

A Data-Driven Workflow Approach to Optimization of Fracture Spacing in Multi-Fractured Shale Oil Wells

Figure 1. Twelve hydraulic fractures developed from 12 perforation clusters in three stages of fracturing.

A Data-Driven Workflow Approach to Optimization of Fracture Spacing in Multi-Fractured Shale Oil Wells This offers a reliable and cost-effective means for assessment of well production potential in terms of optimization of fracture spacing in the MFHW. Result of a field case study indicated that three wells were drilled in an

Using Cohesive Zone Model to Simulate the Hydraulic Fracture Interaction with Natural Fracture in Poro-Viscoelastic Formation

Figure 8. Crack geometry in different fracturing fluid injection rate.

Using Cohesive Zone Model to Simulate the Hydraulic Fracture Interaction with Natural Fracture in Poro-Viscoelastic Formation The numerical procedure for hydraulically driven fracture propagation uses a poro-viscoelasticity theory to describe the fluid diffusion and matrix creep in the solid skeleton, in conjunction with pore-pressure cohesive zone model and ABAQUS was used

Analysis of Pressure Communication between the Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford Reservoirs during a Zipper Fracturing Operation PART 2

Analysis of Pressure Communication between the Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford Reservoirs

PART 2 Analysis of Pressure Communication between the Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford Reservoirs during a Zipper Fracturing Operation Interpretation of Results The principal purpose of our study is to develop a conceptual model for the observed pressure communication between the two reservoirs (Eagle Ford and Austin Chalk). The estimated pressure acting on

Hydraulic Fracture Design with a Proxy Model for Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoir with Considering Feasibility Study

Figure 5. Shale gas reservoir in 3D grid systems—(a) matrix permeability, (b) matrix porosity, and (c) hydraulic fracturing design.

Hydraulic Fracture Design with a Proxy Model for Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoir with Considering Feasibility Study The proxy model uses a robust regression scheme and can replace a commercial reservoir simulator.  The proxy model proposed can determine the influence of impact factors on the production at each production time. The calculation

Retention of Hydraulic Fracturing Water in Shale: The Influence of Anionic Surfactant

Figure 5. The Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectra of (a) BG-2 and (b) KH-2 shales with a corresponding miniature FE-SEM images.

Retention of Hydraulic Fracturing Water in Shale: The Influence of Anionic Surfactant However, the role of some surface active agents like surfactants that are added in the hydraulic fracturing mixture in this issue needs to be understood. In this study, the influence of Internal Olefin Sulfate (IOS), which is an anionic

Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Interactions between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures in Shale Formations

Figure 19. Photographs of specimen Y-7-1 after conducting experiments.

Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Interactions between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures in Shale Formations The inelastic deformation, e.g., stick, slip and separation, of the geologic discontinuities is captured by a special friction joint element called Mohr-Coulomb joint element. The dynamic stress transfer mechanisms between the two fracture systems and the

Introduction to the appropriate-stimulation degree of hydraulic fracture networks in shale gas reservoirs

Fig 5 Introduction to the appropriate-stimulation degree of hydraulic fracture networks in shale gas reservoirs

And three concepts were proposed, i.e., shale gas fracture network, ideal fracture network and appropriate-stimulation degree of fracture network. The study results indicate that, at the end of reservoir development, target zones can be classified into three types (i.e., relatively appropriate stimulation zone, transitional stimulation zone, and uncompleted stimulation zone)

Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Fractures are crucial for unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation, but it is difficult to accurately observe the 3D spatial distribution characteristics of fractures. Microtomography (micro-CT) technology makes it possible to observe the 3D structures of fractures at micro-scale.

Therefore, the independently-developed CTSTA program is adopted to quantitatively describe the micro-fractures inside rock core, including fracture dimension, extension direction and extension scale. Meanwhile, this study summarizes the classification characteristics of fractures and their anisotropy. On this basis, the fractal dimensions of fractures can also be extracted. Previous studies show that

Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

Fig. 1. Comparison between screw perforation and planar perforation.

In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel) and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques

Adsorption damage and control measures of slick-water fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs

Fig. 1 Experimental integrating shale displacement unit and ultraviolet spectrophotometer.

With the increase of pH value, the adsorption capacity decreased gradually, the adsorption capacity increased first and then decreased with the increase of temperature, and the adsorption capacity was the largest at 45°C. The adsorption patterns of polymers on shale were described by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.

Estimation of fracture aperture from petrophysical logs using teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm into a fuzzy inference system

Fig. 10 Processed image logs, conventional well logs, and estimated hydraulic aperture for each fracture plane. The last column shows the comparison between core permeability and derived values

Recently, some artificial intelligence techniques facilitated reliable estimations of reservoir parameters. In this paper, a teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm (TLBO) trained an initial fuzzy inference system to estimate hydraulic aperture of detected fractures using well logs responses. Comparing the results with real measurements revealed that the model can provide reliable estimations

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